Model complex structures with types¶
In this chapter, we’re going to explore one of the features that make AltErgo’s native language great at expressing problems that turn up in program verification: its rich type system.
We’ve already encountered basic types, like bool
and int
which are available in some form or the other in most programming languages, or like real
(whose arbitraryprecision is a bit rarer).
More generally, types can be used to represent many forms of data, and to formalize its structure. Several languages use rich type systems, both as an expressive tool for the programmer and as a tool to enforce various properties of their programs – including the absence of various categories of bugs.
In AltErgo, type constructs can be used to model complex structures and prove properties about them. New types can be created, using the following features.
Abstract types.
Polymorphism: new types may depend on type variables, which could represent any type.
Algebraic datatypes: structured types created from a collection of other types.
 Sum types: disjoint union of types. Their values are created by using one constructor from a fixed collection of them. These include enumerations, where all constructors are abstract (enums are tagged disjoint union of unit type).
 Product types: cartesian product of types. Their values are created by specifying the value of each of their fields. They are implemented by records in AltErgo’s native language.
 Note that algebraic datatypes may also depend on themselves: this allows for the creation of recursive data types, such as lists and trees.
In the first section, we’ll skim over a short list of examples to illustrate these constructs and see how they can be build in AltErgo’s native language. You may skim over this section to get an idea of the possibilities, and check the documentation for a more precise syntax.
We’ll then review patternmatching, a very useful construct to navigate algebraic data types.
Finally, we’ll on a few modelisation exercises.
Examples¶
Example – Abstract type
type thread
logic parent: thread > thread
predicate is_ancestor_of(old:thread, young:thread) =
old = parent(young) or is_ancestor_of(old, parent(young))
logic root: thread
axiom root_def: forall x:thread. is_ancestor_of(root, x)
thread
is an abstract type, but it is still possible to reason about it,
creating variables, functions, predicates, axioms, ..
Example – Enumeration
type suit = Diamonds  Clubs  Hearts  Spades
type color = Red  Black
function color_of_suit(x:suit):color = match x with
 Diamonds > Red
 Hearts > Red
 Clubs > Black
 Spades > Black
end
goal g1:
forall x, y: suit.
color_of_suit(x) <> color_of_suit(y) > x <> y
goal g2:
forall x: suit.
color_of_suit(x) = Red > (x = Diamonds or x = Hearts)
Enums may be used to represent disjoint categories of items.
Here, values of type color
can be build using two constructors,
which both take no arguments (this is always the case for enums) : either Red or Black.
Pattern matching is used to create the conversion function color_of_suit
.
Example – Records
type point = {x:real; y:real; z:real}
type oriented_segment = {fst:point; snd:point}
predicate opposites(s1:oriented_segment, s2:oriented_segment) =
(s1.fst = s2.snd) and (s1.snd = s2.fst)
logic p:point
logic s1, s2:oriented_segment
axiom s1_def: s1 = {fst={x=2.;y=1.;z=3.}; snd=p}
axiom s2_partial_def: s2.snd = {x=2.;y=1.;z=3.}
goal g: s2.fst = p > opposites(s1,s2)
Records can be used to pack values together, and create abstraction.
Here, point
is a record with three fields, x
, y
and z
, all of type real
.
Similarly, oriented_segment
is a record with two fields, both of type point
.
Example – Richer sum types
(* Use of the real exponentiation operator to turn x into a real number *)
function real_of_int(n:int):real = n **. 1
type summable = Int of {int_val :int}  Real of {real_val:real}
function plus(a: summable, b:summable):summable =
match a with
 Int(a_val) > match b with
 Int(b_val) > Int(a_val + b_val)
 Real(b_val) > Real(real_of_int(a_val) + b_val)
end
 Real(a_val) > match b with
 Int(b_val) > Real(a_val + real_of_int(b_val))
 Real(b_val) > Real(a_val + b_val)
end
end
goal g: plus(Int(1),Real(2.)) = Real(3.)
Using records, it is possible to create sum types whose constructors accept arguments.
Here, we are able to create a new type summable
, build from the disjoint union of int
and real
.
Example – Polymorphism
Here, option
is parameterized by the type variable 'a
.
We can use it with the type int
to construct int option
, which is used as the output type of a function which may either return an integer or fail.
(Note that AltErgo actually won’t fail on division by \(0\)).
Example – Recursive datatypes
type thread
logic parent: thread > thread
predicate is_ancestor_of(old:thread, young:thread) =
old = parent(young) or is_ancestor_of(old, parent(young))
logic root: thread
axiom root_def: forall x:thread. is_ancestor_of(root, x)
As algebraic datatypes can depend on themselves, it is possible to create more complex structures.
This example allows for the representation of formulas in a 3valued logic.
Pattern matching¶
In the previous examples, we have used the construct match [...] with [...] end
a couple times.
This construct makes it possible to use a “Really Cool Feature”, which is available in most functional languages (but not restricted to them) : pattern matching.
Pattern matching makes it possible to navigate complex data structures in an elegant and concise way.
In particular, it is extremely useful to unfold algebraic datatypes, and pairs well with them.
More concretely, pattern matching can be used as a conditional programming construct: it is used to recognize the form of values and lets the computation be guided accordingly, associating expression to compute with patterns that can be used to construct this value.
In AltErgo’s native language, this can be written in the following way.
<[...]>
must be replaced by a valid value to unfold, pattern, or result. All results must have the same type.
 The number of patterns is arbitrary (at least one).
_
may be used as a default pattern (used if no other pattern matches the value).
match <value> with
 <pattern1> > <result1>
 <pattern2> > <result2>
...
 <patternM> > <patternM>
end
Example
Pattern matching is easily used on constructors with no arguments.
type suit = Diamonds  Clubs  Hearts  Spades
type color = Red  Black
function color_of_suit(x:suit):color = match x with
 Diamonds > Red
 Hearts > Red
 Clubs > Black
 Spades > Black
end
Note
Pattern matching must be exhaustive, and all cases must be reachable !
If some cases are missing or redundant, the compiler will show an error.
This is one of the great things with pattern matching: the compiler helps you check that you haven’t forgotten anything !
Example
Look at what happens if a case is missing or redundant: the compiler helps you detect those errors.
type suit = Diamonds  Clubs  Hearts  Spades
type color = Red  Black
function color_of_suit(x:suit):color = match x with
 Diamonds > Red
 Hearts > Red
 Clubs > Black
end
type suit = Diamonds  Clubs  Hearts  Spades
type color = Red  Black
function color_of_suit(x:suit):color = match x with
 Diamonds > Red
 Hearts > Red
 Clubs > Black
 Spades > Black
 Clubs > Black
end
Pattern matching is able to extract the arguments of the constructors used to build the value that is unfolded.
Example
type point = P2 of {x2:real; y2: real}  P3 of {x3:real; y3: real; z3: real}
function x_value(p:point):real =
match p with
 P2(x, _) > x
 P3(x, _, _) > x
end
Note that we didn’t have to extact the values of arguments we are not interested in: _
case be used for them.
Warning
Because of a bug, AltErgo’s type checker currently fails on this example (because of the two _
).
Todo
Fix type checker bug on double _
.
Warning
In AltErgo’s native language, only one kind of pattern can be used: constructors of the datatype. This isn’t the case in other languages such as OCaml.
Because of this, AltErgo’s pattern matching is restricted to algebraic datatypes.
Moreover, constructors cannot be nested.
You may check which examples are correct and which aren’t.
function aux(x:int):int =
match x with
 0 > 0
 _ > 1
end
type foo = X  F of {v:foo}
function aux(x:foo):int =
match x with
 X > 0
 F(f) > 1 + aux(f)
end
type foo = X  F of {v:foo}
function aux(x:foo):int =
match x with
 X > 0
 F(X) > 4
 F(f) > 1 + aux(f)
end
(* X is actually interpreted as a variable in the pattern F(X), not as a constructor *)
goal g1: aux(F(X)) = 4
goal g1': aux(F(X)) = 1
goal g2: aux(F(F(X))) = 4
goal g2': aux(F(F(X))) = 2
type foo = X  F of {v:foo}
function aux(x:foo):int =
match x with
 X > 0
 F(X) > 1
 F(F(X)) > 2
 F(f) > 1 + aux(f)
end
Modelisation exercises¶
3valued logic¶
Let’s start with an implementation exercise to get a hand with pattern matching before using types for modelisation.
In this exercise, for the first time in this tutorial, you’re going to navigate algebraic datatypes using pattern matching.
In the beginning of this chapter, we’ve illustrated recursive data structures with the following example, which represents propositions in some 3valued logic.
eval_not
, eval_or
and eval_and
have been written accordingly to the following diagram.
(F, false; U, unknown; T, true)  



Complete the code of the function eval
, which computes the truth value of a prop3
.
type bool3 = T  U  F
type prop3 = C of {cst1:bool3}
 Not of {not1:prop3}
 And of {and1:prop3; and2:prop3}
 Or of {or1:prop3; or2:prop3}
function eval_not(b: bool3):bool3 =
match b with
 T > F
 U > U
 F > T
end
function eval_and(b1: bool3, b2:bool3):bool3 =
if b1=F or b2=F then
F
else if b1=U or b2=U then
U
else
T
function eval_or(b1: bool3, b2:bool3):bool3 =
if b1=T or b2=T then
T
else if b1=U or b2=U then
U
else
F
function eval(p: prop3):bool3 =
(* YOUR CODE HERE
*)
(* Your function must pass the following tests
Note that this is not a complete proof of correctness of your function *)
goal g0:
forall b:bool3. eval(C(b)) = b
goal g1:
let p = And(Not(C(U)),Or(C(T),C(F))) in
eval(p) = U
goal g2:
let p = And(Not(C(F)),Or(C(T),C(F))) in
eval(p) = T
Solution
To navigate recursive datatypes, the key is recursive functions (with pattern matching).
type bool3 = T  U  F
type prop3 = C of {cst1:bool3}
 Not of {not1:prop3}
 And of {and1:prop3; and2:prop3}
 Or of {or1:prop3; or2:prop3}
function eval_not(b: bool3):bool3 =
match b with
 T > F
 U > U
 F > T
end
function eval_and(b1: bool3, b2:bool3):bool3 =
if b1=F or b2=F then
F
else if b1=U or b2=U then
U
else
T
function eval_or(b1: bool3, b2:bool3):bool3 =
if b1=T or b2=T then
T
else if b1=U or b2=U then
U
else
F
function eval(p: prop3):bool3 =
match p with
 C(b) > b
 Not(p0) > eval_not(eval(p0))
 And(p1, p2) > eval_and(eval(p1),eval(p2))
 Or (p1, p2) > eval_or (eval(p1),eval(p2))
end
(* Your function must pass the following tests
Note that this is not a complete proof of correctness of your function *)
goal g0:
forall b:bool3. eval(C(b)) = b
goal g1:
let p = And(Not(C(U)),Or(C(T),C(F))) in
eval(p) = U
goal g2:
let p = And(Not(C(F)),Or(C(T),C(F))) in
eval(p) = T
Lists¶
Exercise
Create a datatype representing a linked list of integers.
type list = (* YOUR CODE HERE *)
(* *)
Solution
This can be done using a recursive datatype.
type list = Nil  Cons of {h:int; t:list}
Exercise
Use polymorphism to create a linked list type parameterized by a type: for every type, you should be able to create a list having elements of this type.
Call this type list
.
(* YOUR CODE HERE *)
(* *)
Solution
Use a type variable.
type 'a list = Nil  Cons of {h:'a; t:'a list}
Exercise
Write a couple functions on lists.
length(l)
should return the number of elements of the listl
.mem(e,l)
should be true if and only ife
appears inl
.index(e,l)
should return the smallest index at whiche
appears inl
. The index of the first element of the list is \(0\). Ife
doesn’t appear inl
, this should return \(1\).
(* YOUR list TYPE HERE*)
function length(l:'a list):int =
(* YOUR CODE HERE
*)
predicate mem(e:'a, l:'a list) =
(* YOUR CODE HERE
*)
Solution
type 'a list = Nil  Cons of {h:'a; t:'a list}
function length(l:'a list):int =
match l with
 Nil > 0
 Cons(_, t) > 1 + length(t)
end
predicate mem(e:'a, l:'a list) =
match l with
 Nil > false
 Cons(h, t) > (e=h) or mem(e,t)
end
Exercise
Complete the code of index
, using the type option
.
index(e,l)
should return the smallest index at which e
appears in l
.
The index of the first element of the list is \(0\).
If e
doesn’t appear in l
, this should return None
.
(* COPY THE CODE OF THE PREVIOUS EXERCISE HERE
*)
type int_option = None  Some of {x:int}
function index(e:'a, l:'a list):int_option =
(* YOUR CODE HERE
*)
(* Check that your fonction work on a couple of examples *)
(* YOUR CHECKS HERE
*)
Solution
Here is a solution. Note that there exists better ways to unfold the option type, using helper functions. (Monads can be used for this).
type 'a list = Nil  Cons of {h:'a; t:'a list}
function length(l:'a list):int =
match l with
 Nil > 0
 Cons(_, t) > 1 + length(t)
end
predicate mem(e:'a, l:'a list) =
match l with
 Nil > false
 Cons(h, t) > (e=h) or mem(e,t)
end
type int_option = None  Some of {x:int}
function index(e:'a, l:'a list):int_option =
match l with
 Nil > None
 Cons(h, t) > if e=h then
Some(0)
else
match index(e,t) with
 None > None
 Some(a) > Some(1+a)
end
end
(* A few checks *)
goal g0: let l = Cons(2,Cons(3,Nil)) in
index(0,l) = None
goal g2: let l = Cons(2,Cons(3,Nil)) in
index(2,l) = Some(0)
goal g3: let l = Cons(2,Cons(3,Nil)) in
index(3,l) = Some(1)
Binary trees¶
As a last example, have a look at binary trees. Each node may have 0, 1 or 2 children.
 Implement a type
tree
of binary trees. Add a fuction
weight
, which computes the total number of nodes in the tree. Add a function
height
, which computes their height. The heights of an empty tree and of a single node are both \(0\). Add a predicate
is_heap
, which checks whether a given binary tree whose values are integers is a heap.You may have to implement helper functions.
(** YOUR tree TYPE here
*)
function weight(t:'a tree):int =
(**
YOUR CODE HERE
*)
(**
Add helper functions if needed
*)
function height(t:'a tree):int =
(**
YOUR CODE HERE
*)
(**
Add helper functions if needed
*)
predicate is_heap(t:int tree) =
(**
YOUR CODE HERE
*)
Solution
Here is a possible solution.
For the heap, we used a little trick: it is possible to expend the integers by adding a value greater than all other.
A similar could be written without this: we would simply have to copy the code of is_heap_aux
in is_heap
, and drop a condition.
(* Tree type *)
type 'a tree = Nil  Node of {left:'a tree; val:'a; right:'a tree}
(* Weight *)
function weight(t:'a tree):int =
match t with
 Nil > 0
 Node(l,_,r) > 1 + weight(l) + weight(r)
end
(* Height *)
function max(x:int, y:int):int =
if x > y then x else y
function height_aux(t:'a tree):int =
match t with
 Nil > 1
 Node(l,_,r) > 1 + max(height_aux(l), height_aux(r))
end
function height(t:'a tree):int =
match t with
 Nil > 0
 _ > height_aux(t)
end
(* Heap *)
predicate is_heap_aux(t:int tree, max_key:int) =
match t with
 Nil > true
 Node(l,v,r) > max_key >= v and is_heap_aux(l, v) and is_heap_aux(r, v)
end
logic infty:int
axiom infty_def: forall x:int. x<=infty
predicate is_heap(t:int tree) = is_heap_aux(t, infty)
(* A couple of checks *)
goal g_nil: let t = Nil in
weight(t) = 0 and height(t) = 0 and is_heap(t)
goal g_leaf: forall v:'a. let t = Node(Nil,v,Nil) in
weight(t) = 1 and height(t) = 0
goal g_leaf': forall v:int. let t = Node(Nil,v,Nil) in
is_heap(t)
logic t1, t2:int tree
axiom t1_def: t1 = Node(Nil,10,Node(Nil,5,Node(Nil,7,Node(Nil,8,Nil))))
axiom t2_def: t2 = Node(Node(Nil,10,Nil),30,Node(Node(Nil,5,Nil),20,Node(Nil,2,Nil)))
goal g1:
weight(t1) = 4 and height(t1) = 3 and not(is_heap(t1))
goal g2:
weight(t2) = 5 and height(t2) = 2 and is_heap(t2)